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Pernament exhibition – European art of  16th - 20th  century.
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Pernament exhibition – Lájosa Kassáka
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The pernament exhibition of European art was created in 1980 on the basis of the gift from Ernest Zmeták and Danica Zmetáková.Originally it was located in the premises of the gallery in the building of the Municipal Office.Since 2004 it has been installed in the new building of the art gallery.The exhibition represents the selection from the vast and qualitatively limited collection activity of E. Zmeták a D. Zmetáková. It includes works from the period of 16th- 20th centuries with emphasis on the central-European  art of the  18th- 19th centuries whose core  is formed by works of Baroque artists /G. B. Piazetta, B. Belotto, P. Troger, J.P. Sauvage, J.Kohl/.The most integrated parts of the exhibition are represented by the Hungarian art of the 19th-20th centuries.There can be found  several master works by great artists /M. Barabaš, F. Ballassa,A Ligeti, J. Kmetty, V. Aba – Novák , I. Szönyi, J. Egry, A. Bernáth/. The substantial part is represented by the Slovak art of the 19th- 20th centuries  where works of the outstanding personalities of the Slovak art culture / L. Mednyánszky, M. Benka, A. Jaszusch, A.Bazovský , J.Alexy, M.Mudroch, C.Majerník, M.Paštéta, M.Laluha/ are included.Collectors had regurarly renewed the exhibition by new works. The last works were donated in 1994.
European art of The 16th centiry and 1st half of the 19th century
/Renaissance- Baroque-Classicism/

The collection of European art with a rich structure provides the insight the periods from Renaissance to Classicism of the 19th century.
The exhibition of Lajos Kassák was founded on the basis of Klará Kassák’s gift. It first opened to public in 1986 housed by the Art Gallery, introducing a gift of 32 works of art and documentary materials showing Kassák’s literary work and art-organizing activities.
The reinstalled exposition portrays a different view. It focuses on the artist’s works of art. The centre of the exposition is based on the collection of works between 1940 and 1965, when both realistic and abstract works were created. Kassák, at the end of 1940s, lived in inner immigration in Békásmegyer. After a longer pause, he started painting again. Though inspired by the surroundings, he did not become a painter copying the reality. He remained a creative thinker, instinctively giving things an architectural order, expressing himself with proverbial eloquence, in an unusual spontaneous and lyrical way. Not only in symbolic landscapes of Békásmegyer but also in abstract compositions, in which he saw an extension of early picture architectures. From its conical forms instead of defiance, a sort of meditative pathos could be felt, mixing with a sense of finiteness. His works from the 1950s have a diary-like, intimate and reflexive character. Kassák discovered the naïve charm of the vanished childhood. In accelerated retrospective, he painted dreamy records or with lax fictitiousness varied biomorphic forms. Interest in his works started to grow abroad in the early 1960s. A graphics album of early and more modern works was published in Switzerland.
The entrance into the exhibition offers Early-Baroque portraits /unknown Polish  painter: The Portreit of the Polish King Ján Sobiesky, about  1690/ and illustrations of the period furniture / Early-Renaissance Case,2nd  half of the 16 th century/.Works of the Dutch artists of the 17th and 18th centuries, which explore the changes of painting styles and genres, represent an interesting collection.
They mediate the tendencies of italizing landscape painting / Hans de Jode:Fishermen at  the Waterfall, 1663/, pieces of vanitas type /unknown Dutch painter: Fisherman under the Ruin, 1st half of the 18th century/.Works of Italian artists of the 17th and 18th centuries mediate various painting works- from local version of Manierism / Unknown Italian painter . Suicide of Lucrecia, about 1660/ via the tradition  of caravaggio Baroque  realism /M. Stommer: Recovery of Blind Tobias, 1st half of the 17th century/, via venetian colourist tradition /G. B. Piazetta : Boy with a knife, about 1740/- to classicistic portrait / J.B. Lampi Starší: Lady in Turban, about 1800 -1810/.Vedutas of the Venetian painter Bernardo Belotto representing   armorial  motives of  the town /Saint Mark´s  Square, Venetian motive, about 1743/ belong to the gems of the collection.The Austrian art in the period of the developed Baroque is represented by works with sacral thems / F. X. Palko: Votive picture, 1747/.The painting by Jean Sauvage /Portrait of Karol Jozef Batthyány, after 1765/ is a demonstration  of the artistry of late Baroque representative portrait  from the times of Maria Teresa. The theatricality of the late Baroque Classicism is reflected in the work of Jacob Kohl / A Visit in the House of Pharisee Simon, 1781/.The gracefulness of Rococo  echoes in the portrait painting / F. X. Schmidthammer: Girl with a Bird, 1794/. Idealising tendencies of Classicism appear in the landscape-painting /K. Schallchas : Country with a bridge, 1780-1790/, realistic ones appear in the portrait / A. Einscle: Portrait of the Officer, 1829/.The high standard of the period furniture industry is proved in works of Austrian and German craftsmen / Baroque Console Table, 1750/.  

European art of the end of the 18th century and 1st half of the 19th century.
/ Classicism and Romantism /

 The cabinet set includes works of of the European artists from the period of Classicism  and Romantism. The Pot with the silver cap /about 1785-1795/ decorated with the ancient scene  belongs to the typical examples of Classicism. It comes from the work of the English ceramist, Josiah Weedgwood.Romanticism is reflected in various positions of the landscape - painting from ideal /Czech painter from the circle of K.Postl: Shepherds under the Tree, about 1810/ and fantastic country / central European painter: Romantic country with a Bridge, about 1830 /  -  to exotic country / French painter:  Country from El Gesair, 1833/.Rarely there is a romantic topic of the melodramatic picture of death / German painter: Drowned in the Sea, after 1830/ or wild elements and animal fear /F. Krüger:Running Dog in the storm, about 1830/.

European art of the 19th century
/ Biedemayer -  Historicism – Realism /

 The selection of the European art of the 19th century shows the period of Biedemayer,Historicism and Realism. Right in these cabinet wholes the colective nature of the collection is reflected by the interest in atypical or curious works. The Biedermayer genre – painting which captures the unusual theme with the exceptional sence for detail  and exaggeration /German painter : At the dentist s, about  1830/ is a  good example of this.Historicism is represented by exhibits from the field of the applied art. The Neo - Renaissance wardrobe / about 1860 / evoking the fasade of Florentine palaces – belongs to the type of architectonically shaped furniture. The authors of Urbino jardiniéres  /1st half of the 19th century / have established the connection with the national decorative tradition.Realism is echoed in the  landscape – painting and portrait.In the landscape-painting of the 2nd half of the 19th century there   occurred  the transition from the romantic ideal country to the realistic country / R. Lang :The Danube country , about 1860 /. Gradually the interest in  the impressionistic substantation of the motive / R. Ribarz : The Breton country , about 1880 / and subjective record of visuality grew / C.Corot ?:Country from Capri, about 1874/.There  similar process occurred  also in the portrait. There was a transition from the romantic idealization / Central - European painter : Portrait of the Lady with a Rose, 1840/ towards the realistic picture of the character / T.V.Amerling: Portrait of the Older Man, about 1860 /. Realistic tendencies  were deepened in the subjective stylization of the model / W. Leibl: Man in the cylinder, about 1880 / and naturalistic analyses of a personality / F. v. Lenbach : Portrait of an Old Woman, about 1890/.

Hungarian art of the 19th century
/Biedermayer – Romanticism -  Historicism – Plain-air /

 The Hungarian art of the 19th is closely aimed at the art of painting. It incorporates the changes from the Beidermayer to Plain-air.Biedermayer was reflected in the burgher´s portrait / Ugrian painter : Portrait of the Mining Engineer , after 1830 / and in the genre-painting /J. Borsos: Lady reading the Letter, about 1850 /. Works in the creation of the great portrait – painter of the period, Miklós Barabás, combine real representation characteristic for Biedermayer with the romantic idealization / Portrait of a Young Widow, 1842 / .The field of landscape –painting and genre-painting of 30´s  -  40´s of the 19th century reflects the motives of Italian ideal country and picturesque folk genres. It includes also the work of František Balassa / Sunday Afternoon at Naples, about 1830 /, in which he reacted to Italian Cassicism in the spirit of Romanticism.Since the half of the 19th century the efforts for the national style under the influence of Romanticism were strengthened.The interest in national history, pictures from folk life and typical landscape localities were deepened.The national Romanticism was reflected in the works of Mihály Munkácsy /In front of the Inn, about 1865/, Mihály Szemlér / Lunch in the nature,1866 / and Sándor Brodsky/ View of Ostrihom Basilica, about 1875 /. Romantic admiration of the majesty beauty of the homeland is reflected either in the painting of  Anatol Ligeti /Puzsta, 1884/.70´s and 90´s of the 19th century were the gold age of Historicism. This period is represented in painting in the interior scene by Berlatan Székely / Evening Scene in the Flat, 1880 / and in mythological scene by Károly Lotz / Amor and Psyché, after 1890/ in sculpture it is the portrait  by János Fadrusz / Portrait of  F. Liszt, about 1890/.The beginnings of the Plain-air date back to 70´s of the 19th century. The work of the Plain-air pioneer Pál Szinyei Merse represents the classical demonstration of the artist´s poetic view and optimistic view of life / A Spring, 1873-1874/.

Hungarian art of the 1st half of 20th century.
/ Landscape -  avant-garde -  neo-classicism – Postnagybánya /

 Hungarian art of the 1st half of the 20th century represents tendencies in life art and sculpture. The early painter´s works were associated with landscape sketches, giving the world representatives of various orientations from naturalism to avant - garde and neo - classicism.Frequently experimenting Béla Iványi Grünwald – one of the Nagybán colony founders- remained faithful to harmonic view of plain-air  painting, with motifs of the Hungarian Puszta / Rider, around 1930/. Sensual picturesqueness of plain-air was reflected in naturalistic interpretation of  historical theme  by István Csók / Study of Alžbeta Báthory, 1923 /. Stylistic tendencies  of post modernism could  also be seen  in Viktor Belányi´s Self – portrait /around 1910-1915/.Gyula Rudnay´s nostalgic – like works symbolize a unique form  of the period between the world wars romanticism /Gemer- landscape, 1924-1934/.A sort of romantic pathos could be felt in Gyula Csorba sculpture, created as a study of Sándor Körösi - Csoma monument / Pilgrim,1923 /.Experiments of the early avant- garde period marked the expressive painting of  Peter Dobrovic / A Study of a portrait, 1917/- while the following prices of classicistic movement could be seen in the works of János  Kmetty / Portrait of the geologist Miklós Sárpataky Nagy, 1920/.Various tendencies of avant-garde between the two world wars could be  seen in paintings by Albert Bertalan  / Self –portrait, 1930/, Zsigmund Wallshausen  /Country by Balaton , around 1931/ and Vilmos Perlott Csaba / Two nudes, 1932/.A radical aspect is represented by cubist – expressionistic works of Armnad Schönberg / Man with a horse in the country, 1924/.The 1920s saw an accession of a generation of neo-classicist   artists represented by essential works.István Syỡnyi´s monumental  composition of / Nude with a bowl, 1921/ was exhibited at biennale in Venice /1924/.Works of Aba-Novak announced a change in style.The early study of nude  /1921/ manifests a neo-classicistic appropriation of avant-garde traditions, while the artistic self-portrait  /1926 / shows a shift towards pos-Cézanne structural painting. Edification of neo-classicism vibrated even in the early Self-portrait  /1943/  of Lajos Luzsicza, painter born in Nové Zámky.Neo-classicism in sculpture was expressed in a return to monumental forms and inner dynamics / I. Szentgyörgyi: Nude, 1920-1929 ;D.Bokross Birmann: Self- portrait, 1943 /.In 1930s, progressive tendencies were represented by artists grouped in Gresham, developing an individual style based on pantheistic  cult of nature and subjective transformation of view / A. Bernáth : Railway near Piešťany, around 1930; j. Egry: Swimming pool in Héviz,  around 1930 /.

Slovak and Czech Art of 19th and 20th century.
/ Classicism – Romantism – Realism - Modernism /

 Slovak and Czech art extends from the period of classicism to modern tendencies of the 20th century. The early  years in the first half of the 19th century are represented by works of artist from around Levoča / J.J.Müller: Scenery with antique ruins, around 1820; G. Müller: Portreit of a boy in white waistcoat, 1837/.Romantism is reflected in the works of František Klimkovič /Cemetery in Košice, 1949/ and his brother´s Vojtech Klimkovič / Winter garden, around 1865/.Biedermayer elements  can be seen in portraits by Johann Pergera / Sagarovs family, 1843/ and by a forerunner of realism Peter Michal Bohúň /Portrait of Johanka Trampová  from Veľká near Poprad, 1853 / Principles of realism were applied on a panoramatic Veduta /1885/  by a well-know patriot and inventor Jozef Murgaš.Czech art is represented by Karel Purkyne´s little sketch / Sketch of Shakespeare procession, 1864 / , patina paitings of Václav Brožík /Portrait of a young Rabbi, after 1880 / and sculpture by Ján Štursa / Head of Hetareae, 1909/.Slovak art of the 19th and 20th century is bridged by the works of Ladislav Mednyánszky, the artis who abandoned  Bartizen traditions and inclined to a subjective interpreted statement / Sunset, around 1890; Autumn fogs , after 1910/.At the turn of the century, mostly traditionally orientated artists worked in Bratislava.The founder of the art society in Bratislava , Eduard Majsch, developed an anecdotic style of Vienna genre painting /Country motif, around 1900/.Sculptor Alojz Rigele joined the eclectic tendencies of Historicism /Mother and child, 1904/. Artists from Košice responded to new trends in a more dynamic way. The painter of intimate landscapes, Ľudovít Csordáš  is represented by atypical still-life/ Chrysanthemus on the table, 1925 /. On the contrary , Anton Jaszusch represents a dominant representative  of Modernism in Košice, with decorative sketch  Village /around 1930/.Nationalistically orientated programme of Martin Benka was reflected into a fresh landscape painting , celebrating home scenery /Slovak summer, around 1930/. Creative ambitions of the prominent Modernist artists are symbolized by significant  works of art. Archetype-like Village /1945/ by Janko Alexy depicts a motif of Čáčov.Balladic and poetic vision of Miloš Alexander Bazovský vibrates in a sort of naïve  reflection of the painter /Glory of the Sun, 1947/. Painters  František Reichentál /French country, after 1927/ and Lea Mrázová /Artist with her child, around 1930/ followed  the principes of Modernism. Works of Generation 1909 are represented by significant works of art. A solitary  still-life by Cyprián Majerník / Still-life with pears, around 1930/ shows impulses of French style of painting.Graded emotionality of war times radiates from Ján Mudroch´s  suggestive portrait / Portrait of a boy,around 1940/. A melancholic  atmosphere can be felt from a grotesque circus scene /Circus, 1944/ by Vincent Hložník . Dramatic years  can be spotted in sublimated reflection of interior scene by Peter Matejka  /Girl at table, 1946/.Expressive tendencies still prevailed in sculpture of 1940s and 50s.Jozef Kostka, during the Second World War, expressed human tragedy in a figure of dejected woman /Standing nude, 1943/.Later sculpture by Tibor Bártfay showing a young mother evokes hope for better future /Waiting, 1958/.In 1960s started a succession of artists of Mikuláš Galanda group, who followed the progressive tendencies of home and forein art. The rustic Trees by Milan Laluha /1958-1960/ are an example of this symbiosis.Milan Paštéka´s cultured way of expressing is conveyed by a charakteristic figural composition /Family with a horse, 1974/.Vladimír Kompánek´s dream winter country  /Winter, 1984/ indicates a lyrical relationship towards Slovak villages.Alexander Ilečko and Vojtech Löffler´s sculptures are characteristic of their unique view and interest in human character.A charmingly naïve portrait by A. Ilečko /My wife, 1973-1983/ranks amongst a loose series in which he depicted his family members and friends.V. Löffler expressed cleanlines of emotiones by archetype forms  /Piety, 1980/.Painters experiments of 1970s-90s are rare.Here we can mention painters interventions of Rudolf Fila /Medúsa, 1978/, structural painting of Michal Studený /Christ´s years, 1958/ and a rustic utterance of Ludovít Holoska /Winter, 1993/.Fragmentary presence of such tendencies  results of collectors orientation for classical art and proved qualities of fine art.

Sample ImageHis picture architectures also date back to 1963. In the 1960s, Kassák created collages, joining constructive mounting with surrealistic imagination.A sort of suggestive character of picture architecture vibrates in his colleges.
Documents are represented in symbolic way. They approach the important moments of Kassák’s activities, introducing him as the editor of the magazine “Ma” (Today) (1916 – 1925), the author of the legendary Green Book with Picture Architecture Manifesto (1921) or as the creator of the Book of Modern Artists (1922), which he wrote with L. Moholy Nagy.From the literary work, his autobiographical novel Life of a Man ranks amongst his most significant works.
From the very start, a generation of artists respond to his work. Even though he never had any followers; his work and points of view had an inspiring influence, touching mainly those who professed liberty of creation and topicality of art. In 1987, Juraj Meliš and József R. Juhász, not influenced by each other, commemorated Kassak’s centenary. The album initiated by Meliš together with other 48 Slovak and Czech artists got into Kassák’s Museum in Budapest. Part of the international mail art activity, organized by Juhász, was donated to the Art Gallery. A selection of works by Dalibor Chatrný, Josef Hamlp, Svatopluk Klimeš, Rudolf Pavel, György Galántai, Anatolij Žigalov are to be found in the exposition. At the next jubilee in 1997, Slovak artist became activate again. Juraj Meliš’s relief interpreting Kassák’s picture architecture, the collage by Otis Laumbert and the project of Monogramist T.D. – Kassák’s Hat all originate from that period. Works of Peter Rónai and József R. Juhász arose independently from the stated tributes – as an example of the still exquisite radiation of the myth called Kassák.


Miroslav Cipár
26.1.2012 - 17.3.2012
Kurátor: PhDr. Eva Trojanová
Katarína Decsiová
2.2.2012 - 17.3.2012
Kurátor: József R. Juhász

Lajos Kassák-Kassák na fotografiách
22.3.2012 - 21.4.2012
Kurátor: Mgr. Helena Markusková

Frantisek Lozinsky a Block csoport
26.4.2012 - 26.5.2012
Kurátor: Jozef Cseres

Prof. Juraj Meliš, akad. soch.
31.5.2012 - 7.7.2012
Kurátor: Mgr. Magdaléna Klobučníková

Judita Csáderová
12.7.2012 - 8.9.2012
Kurátor: Mgr. Magdaléna Klobučníková

László Mulasics
13.9.2012 - 13.10.2012

Ašot Haas
18.10.2012 - 24.11.2012
Kurátor: Mgr. Ľudmila Kasaj Poláčková

Daniel Fischer
29.11.2012 - 19.1.2013
Kurátor: Mgr. Helena Markusková

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